A Linked Data Event Stream (LDES) (
ldes:EventStream) is a collection (
rdfs:subClassOf tree:Collection) of immutable objects, each object being described using a set of RDF triples ([rdf-primer]).
This specification uses the TREE specification for its collection and fragmentation (or pagination) features, which in its turn is compatible to other specifications such as [activitystreams-core], [VOCAB-DCAT-2], [LDP] or Shape Trees. For the specific compatibility rules, read the TREE specification.
Note: When a client once processed a member, it should never have to process it again. A Linked Data Event Stream client can thus keep a list of (or cache) already processed member IRIs. A reference implementation of a client is available as part of the Comunica framework on NPM and Github.
The base URI for LDES is
https://w3id.org/ldes#, and the preferred prefix is
ex : C1 a ldes : EventStream ; ldes : timestampPath sosa : resultTime ; tree : shape ex : shape1.shacl ; tree : member ex : Observation1 . ex : Observation1 a sosa : Observation ; sosa : resultTime "2021-01-01T00:00:00Z" ^^ xsd : dateTime ; sosa : hasSimpleResult "..." .
ldes:EventStream instance SHOULD have these properties:
tree:shape: the shape of the collection defines its members. It tells clients all old and new members of the stream have been and will be validated by that shape. As a consequence of the immutability of the members, this shape MAY evolve, but it MUST always be backwards compatible to the earlier version.
tree:memberindicating the members of the collection.
ldes:EventStream instance MAY have these properties:
ldes:timestampPathindicating how you can understand using a timestamp (
xsd:dateTime) a member precedes another member in the LDES
ldes:versionOfPathindicating the non-version object (see example bellow).
ex : C2 a ldes : EventStream ; ldes : timestampPath dcterms : created ; ldes : versionOfPath dcterms : isVersionOf ; tree : shape ex : shape2.shacl ; tree : member ex : AddressRecord1-version1 . ex : AddressRecord1-version1 dcterms : created "2021-01-01T00:00:00Z" ^^ xsd : dateTime ; adms : versionNotes "First version of this address" ; dcterms : isVersionOf ex : AddressRecord1 ; dcterms : title "Streetname X, ZIP Municipality, Country" .
Note: When you need to change an earlier version of an
ldes:EventStream, there are two options: create a new version of the object with a new shape that is backward compatible, and add the new version of that object again as a member on the stream, or replicate and transform the entire collection into a new
ldes:EventStream. You can indicate that the new
ldes:EventStream is derived from
Note: in Example 1, we consider the Observation object to be an immutable object and we can use the existing identifiers. In Example 2 however, we still had to create version IRIs in order to be able to link to immutable objects.
2. Fragmenting and pagination
The focus of an LDES is to allow clients to replicate the history of a dataset and efficiently synchronize with its latest changes. Linked Data Event Streams MAY be fragmented when their size becomes too big for 1 HTTP response. Fragmentations MUST be described using the features in the TREE specification. All relation types from the TREE specification MAY be used.
ex : C1 a ldes : EventStream ; ldes : timestampPath sosa : resultTime ; tree : shape ex : shape1.shacl ; tree : member ex : Obervation1 , ... ; tree : view <?page=1> . <?page=1> a tree : Node ; tree : relation [ a tree : GreaterThanOrEqualToRelation ; tree : path sosa : resultTime ; tree : node <?page=2> ; tree : value "2020-12-24T12:00:00Z" ^^ xsd : dateTime ] .
tree:importStream MAY be used to describe a publish-subscribe interface to subscribe to new members in the LDES.
Note: A 1-dimensional fragmentation based on creation time of the immutable objects is probably going to be the most interesting and highest priority fragmentation for an LDES, as only the latest page, once replicated, should be subscribed to for updates.
However, it may happen that a time-based fragmentation cannot be applied. For example: the backend system on which the LDES has been built does not receive the events at the time they were created, due to human errors (forgetting to indicate that a change was made),
external systems or just latency. Applying a time-based fragmentation in that situation will result in losing caching, due to the ever-changing pages. Instead, in the spirit of an LDES’s goal, the publisher should publish the events in the order they were received
by the backend system (that order is never changing), trying to gave as many pages as possible an HTTP
Cache-Control: public, max-age=604800, immutable header
Note: Cfr. the example in the TREE specification on “searching through a list of objects ordered in time”, also a search form can optionally make a one dimensional feed of immutable objects more searchable.
3. Retention policies
By default, an LDES MUST keep all data that has been added to the
ldes:EventStream) as defined by the TREE specification.
It MAY add a retention policy in which the server indicates data will be removed from the server.
Third parties SHOULD read retention policies to understand what subset of the data is available in this
tree:View, and MAY archive these member.
In the LDES specification, two types of retention policies are defined which can be used with a
ldes:retentionPolicy with an instance of a
tree:View as its subject:
ldes:DurationAgoPolicy: a time-based retention policy in which data generated before a specific time is removed
ldes:LatestVersionSubset: a version subset based on the latest versions of an entity in the stream
Different retention policies MAY be combined. When policies are used together, a server MUST store the members as long they are not all matched.
3.1. Time-based retention policies
A time-based retention policy can be introduced as follows:
ex : C3 a ldes : EventStream ; ldes : timestampPath prov : generatedAtTime ; tree : view <> . <> ldes : retentionPolicy ex : P1 . ex : P1 a ldes : DurationAgoPolicy ; tree : value "P1Y" ^^ xsd : duration . # Keep 1 year of data
ldes:DurationAgoPolicy uses a
tree:value with an
xsd:duration-typed literal to indicate how long ago the timestamp, indicated by the
ldes:timestampPath that MAY be redefined in the policy itself.
3.2. Version-based retention policies
ex : C2 a ldes : EventStream ; ldes : timestampPath dcterms : created ; ldes : versionOfPath dcterms : isVersionOf ; tree : view <> . <> ldes : retentionPolicy ex : P2 . ex : P2 a ldes : LatestVersionSubset ; ldes : amount 2 ; #If different from the Event Stream, this can optionally be overwritten here ldes : timestampPath dcterms : created ; ldes : versionOfPath dcterms : isVersionOf .
ldes:LatestVersionSubset MUST define the predicate
ldes:amount and MAY redefine the ldes:timestampPath and/or ldes:versionOfPath. It MAY also define a compound version key using
ldes:versionKey (see example below) instead of the more
ldes:amount has a
xsd:nonNegativeInteger datatype and indicated how many to keep that defaults to 1.
ldes:versionKey is an
rdf:List of SHACL property paths indicating objects that MUST be concatenated together to find the key on which versions are matched.
ldes:versionKey is set to an empty path
(), all members MUST be seen as a version of the same thing.
ex : C1 a ldes : EventStream ; tree : view <> . <> ldes : retentionPolicy ex : P3 . ex : P3 a ldes : LatestVersionSubset ; ldes : amount 2 ; ldes : versionKey ( ( sosa : observedProperty ) ( sosa : madeBySensor ) ) .
4. Derived collections
We will extend the spec with multiple best practices on how to annotate that your newly published collection is derived from an LDES.
4.1. Version Materializations
A version materialization can be defined only if the original LDES defines both
A version materialization replaces the subject of a member with its
ldes:versionOfPath IRI, and selects a certain version of this object.
It also translated
created style timestamp predicates to
ex : ES1 a ldes : EventStream tree : member [ dcterms : isVersionOf <A> ; dcterms : created "2020-10-05T11:00:00Z" owl : versionInfo "v0.0.1" ; rdfs : label "A v0.0.1" ], [ dcterms : isVersionOf <A> ; dcterms : created "2020-10-06T13:00:00Z" ; owl : versionInfo "v0.0.2" ; rdfs : label "A v0.0.2" ].
ex : ES1v1 a tree : Collection ; # the members are no longer immutable ldes : versionMaterializationOf ex : ES1 ; ldes : versionMaterializationUntil "2020-10-05T12:00:00Z" ^^ xsd : dateTime ; tree : member <A> . <A> rdfs : label "A v0.0.1" ; dcterms : modified "2020-10-05T11:00:00Z" .
A version materialization is thus a
tree:Collection instance that has two predicates set:
ldes:versionMaterializationOf: points to the orginal LDES
ldes:versionMaterializationUntil: optionally gives a timestamp (
xsd:dateTime) until when the materialization was made.
Note: We see
versionMaterializationUntil mainly useful for historical and static datasets that deliberately will not be updated to the latest state of the LDES.